Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Suggestions of Pathophysiology and Treatments

Taruna Ikrar

Abstract


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that specifically affects motor neurons and leads to a progressive and ultimately fatal loss of functions, resulting in death typically within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis. The disease starts with a focal center of weakness, such as one limb, and usually spreads to other extremities, the brain, and often kills by affecting the respiratory muscles. Recent studies reveal a trend towards an increase in the ALS mortality rate, but the significance of this trend remains unclear. Recent ALS incidence studies have given new insight into ALS epidemiology. ALS seems to be distributed uniformly in different countries, with age-specific incidence rates showing a progressive increase up to the 60–79 age group. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of familial ALS seem multifactorial with emerging evidence of a complex interaction between genetic and molecular pathways. This review provides new insights into the two different form of ALS which primarily highlights epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiological, current state of ALS therapy and what the best directions are regarding future ALS research. Future directions to treat and manage ALS via stem cell therapy, possibly new drug discoveries, and diet are given.

Keywords


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neuro-degenerative, genetics, stem cell

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21535%2Fpcs.v3i2.940

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