Evaluation of Display Methods for Teleoperation of Road Vehicles

Frederic Emanuel Chucholowski

Abstract


During teleoperation of road vehicles, live images from the vehicle are sent to an operator via a cellular connection, who then inputs his control demands. Time delays resulting from signal processing and transmission times can cause instabilities in the control loop and decrease driving performance. To mitigate the negative effects of time delays, predictive displays have long been used in the field of robotics. This paper presents the “Frame Prediction” method for drawing a predictive display for teleoperation of road vehicles. It also shows the results of an experiment in a simulated environment which compared the presented method to 1) driving under the influence of time delays and 2) a display method where the video images are modified as if there was no time delay present. Results revealed that the Frame Prediction method significantly increases driving performance and decreases operator workload for delayed systems. For some scenarios it even supersedes the driving performance without delays.

Keywords


Teleoperation; Predictive Display; Indirect Vision Driving

Full Text:

PDF

References


F. Diermeyer, S. Gnatzig, F. Chucholowski, T. Tang, and M. Lienkamp, “Der Mensch als Sensor - Der Weg zum teleoperierten Fahren,” in AAET, 2011.

S. Gnatzig, F. Chucholowski, T. Tang, and M. Lienkamp, “A System Design for Teleoperated Road Vehicles,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, 2013.

J. Davis, C. Smyth, and K. McDowell, “MITIGATING THE EFFECTS OF TIME LAG ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE,” ndia-mich.org, no. Proceedings of the 2009 Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium (GVSETS), pp. 1–5, http://www.ndia-mich.org/downloads/GVSETS/GVSETSPapers/Robotic Systems/Mitigating the Effects of Time Lags on Driving Performance.pdf, 2009.

T. Tang, F. Chucholowski, M. Yan, and M. Lienkamp, “A Novel Study on Data Rate by the Video Transmission for Teleoperated Road Vehicles,” in ICIUS 2013: 9th International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems, 2013.

W. R. Ferrell, “Remote manipulation with transmission delay,” Technology, vol. 6, no. February, pp. 24–32, http://en.scientificcommons.org/741527, 1965.

D. W. Cunningham, A. Chatziastros, Von Der Heyde, M, and H. H. Bülthoff, “Driving in the future: temporal visuomotor adaptation and generalization,” Journal of vision, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 88–98, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678604, 2001.

G. Niemeyer and J.-J. Slotine, “Towards force-reflecting teleoperation over the Internet,” in Proceedings. 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. No.98CH36146): IEEE, 1998, pp. 1909–1915.

S. Gnatzig, F. Schuller, and M. Lienkamp, “Human-machine interaction as key technology for driverless driving - A trajectory-based shared autonomy control approach,” in 2012 RO-MAN: The 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: Paris, France, 9 - 13 September 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2012, pp. 913–918.

J. E. Arnold and P. W. Braisted, “Design and evaluation of a predictor for remote control systems operating with signal transmission delays,” NASA December, 1963.

T. Burkert, J. Leupold, and G. Passig, “A Photorealistic Predictive Display,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 22–43, 2004.

W. Verplank, “Display Aids for Remote Control of Untethered Undersea Vehicles,” in OCEANS ’78: IEEE, 1978, pp. 238–241.

B. Sullivan, C. Ware, and M. Plumlee, “Predictive Displays for Survey Vessels,” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 50, no. 22, pp. 2424–2428, http://pro.sagepub.com/content/50/22/2424.short http://pro.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1177/154193120605002216, 2006.

M. Jagersand, A. Rachmielowski, D. Lovi, and N. Birkbeck, “Predictive Display from Computer Vision Models,” in The 10th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space I-SAIRAS, 2010.

F. Chucholowski, S. Büchner, J. Reicheneder, and M. Lienkamp, “Prediction Methods for Teleoperated Road Vehicles,” in Conference on Future Automotive Technology - Focus Electromobility, Garching: Bayern Innovativ GmbH, 2013.

S. Mathan, A. Hyndman, K. Fischer, J. Blatz, and D. Brams, “Efficacy of a predictive display, steering device, and vehicle body representation in the operation of a lunar vehicle,” in Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems common ground - CHI ’96, New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 1996, pp. 71–72.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21535%2Fjust.v3i3.38

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.