Optimal Sizing Supercapacitor-battery Hybrid Energy Storage System in Solar Application using the Genetic Algorithms

Chia Yen Yee, Niusha Shafiabady, Dino Isa


This paper deals with an approach to optimally size a supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system for solar applications using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). GA simulation shows that the cost of the proposed supercapacitor-battery renewable energy system is lower than the cost of the conventional renewable energy system, which contains only battery system as energy storage devices. This approach suggests the optimal number of components used in the renewable energy system and ensures that the 20-year round total system cost is optimized subject to the constraint that the load energy requirements are completely covered (zero load rejection) or capacity shortage of 1% and 2%. The implemented GA fitness function optimized the 20-year round total system cost which equals to the sum of the respective component capital (initial), operational and maintenance cost. The concept of the proposed supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system exploits the strengths and compensates for the weakness of each storage device. This means that the batteries which known as a high energy density is sized at the average power for delivering the average power, whereas, supercapacitors is designed to cater the peak power. This is feasible because the supercapacitor has lower resistance which is able to shield the battery from at least a portion of the current pulses and thus extend the battery lifetime. This not only aids the reduction of the cost of replacement batteries throughout the project lifetime but it is also said to be a more environmental friendly system. The main contribution of this approach is to optimize the cost of the Supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system in renewable energy system which cannot be solved in most of the commercial simulation tools, such as HOMER and HYBRIDS due to the absence of the supercapacitor components in these commercial software.


Supercapacitor, hybrid energy storage system (HESS), Genetic Algorithm (GA), constraint optimization

Full Text:



Mekhilef S, Saidur R, Safari A. A review on solar energy use in industries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011;15(4):1777–90.

S. Mekhilef, A. Safari, W.E.S. Mustaffa, R. Saidur, R. Omar and M.A.A. Younis, "Solar energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, pp. 386-396, 2012.

Nugroho AM. The impact of solar chimney geometry for stack ventilation in Malaysia’s single storey terraced house. Malaysia’s Geography 2010;(January):163–77.

Jamaludin AFB. Energy mix and alternatives energy for sustainable development in Malaysia. University Putra Malaysia; 2009.

"Compendium of Energy Efficiency Policies of APEC Economies," 2011.

Glavin, M.E., Chan, P.K.W., Armstrong, S and Hurley, W.G, "A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system," in Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2008. EPE-PEMC 2008. 13th, Poznan, September 2008.

Bindner, H, Cronin, T., Lundsager, P., Manwell, J.F., Abdulwahid, U. and Baring-Gould, I., "Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries," 2005.

R. Kaiser, "Optimized battery-management system to improve storage lifetime in renewable energy systems," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 168, no. 1, p. 58–65, May 2007.

S. Duryea, S. Islam, W. Lawrance, “A Battery Management System for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy Systems”, IEEE Industrial Applications Magazine, Vol.7, Issue 3, May-June, 2001, pp.67-72.

J.P. Dunlop, B.N. Farhi, “Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems: A Review of Lessons Learned”, Proceedings of Forum 2001 Solar Energy: The Power to Choose, Washington DC, April 21-25, 2001.

H. Yang, W. Zhou, L. Lu and Z. Fang, "Optimal sizing method for stand-alone hybrid solar–wind system with LPSP technology by using genetic algorithm," Solar Energy, vol. 82, no. 4, p. 354–367, April 2008.

Eftichios Koutroulis, Dionissia Kolokotsa, Antonis Potirakis and Kostas Kalaitzakis, "Methodology for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind-generator systems using genetic algorithms," Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 9, p. 1072–1088, September 2006.

O. Erdinc and M. Uzunoglu, "Optimum design of hybrid renewable energy systems: Overview of different approaches," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 1412–1425, April 2012.

M. Srinivas and Lalit M.Patnaik, "Genetic Algorithms: A Survey," IEEE Computer , vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 17-26, June 1994.

Jose ́ L. Bernal-Agustı ́n and Rodolfo Dufo-López, "Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 13, no. 8, p. 2111–2118, October 2009.

Dunlop, E.D., Halton, D. and Ossenbrink, H.A., "20 years of life and more: where is the end of life of a PV module?," in Conference Record of the Thirty-first IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2005., 3-7 Jan. 2005.

M. N. G. V. V. G. Kellogg W.D., "Generation unit sizing and cost analysis for stand-alone wind photovoltaic and hybrid wind/PV systems," IEEE Trans Energy Conversion, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 70–75, March 1998.

John Schaeffer and Doug Pratt, Gaiam Real Goods solar living sourcebook : your complete guide to renewable energy technologies and sustainable living, Gaiam Real Goods, 2005.

Eftichios Koutroulis, Dionissia Kolokotsa, Antonis Potirakis and Kostas Kalaitzakis, "Methodology for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind-generator systems using genetic algorithms," Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 9, p. 1072–1088, September 2006.

A. Yu, Victor Chabot and Jiujun Zhang, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications (Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion), America: CRC Press, April 2013.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21535%2Fijrm.v1i1.85


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.