Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Deformation Characterisations for the WEDM Contour Cut Surfaces

Nida Naveed


The contour method is a destructive technique to measure the residual stresses. The contour method involves cutting a specimen into two halves and provides a full cross-sectional map of the residual stress acting normal to the cut surface. The cutting process is the first and most important step of the method. Any error in this step can adversely affect all the subsequent steps of the method. Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is the best choice cutting process for the contour method. Any deviation can cause inaccuracy and uncertainty in the contour stress results. Therefore, the most appropriate cutting conditions must be selected in order to minimise undesirable cutting effects and to obtain the best surface finish. This research covers the design of a test specimen to benchmark the quality of cutting for contour method measurement. The design allows sequential trial cuts on a nominally stress-free specimen. A high yield strength mild steel (EN3B) has been selected for this research on the basis that it is widely used in industrial applications. This research helps to identify the extent, nature and causes of undesirable effects of cutting process and aids to identify the important parameters that can be used to demonstrate the quality of the contour cut to help optimise the cutting process.


Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), The Contour Method; Residual Stresses; High Yield Strength Mild Steel

Full Text:



M. B. Prime, “System and method for measuring residual stress,” Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, 2002.

M. B. Prime and A. L. Kastengren, “The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction,” in Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 6, Springer, 2011, pp. 233–250.

M. Prime and A. T. DeWald, “The Contour Method,” in Practical Residual Stress Measurement Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013, pp. 109–138.

F. Hosseinzadeh, J. Kowal, and P. J. Bouchard, “Towards good practice guidelines for the contour method of residual stress measurement,” J. Eng., p. Online–only, 2014.

M. Kunieda, B. Lauwers, K. P. Rajurkar, and B. M. Schumacher, “Advancing EDM through Fundamental Insight into the Process,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 64–87, 2005.

T. A. Spedding and Z. Q. Wang, “Parametric optimization and surface characterization of wire electrical discharge machining process,” Precis. Eng., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5–15, Jan. 1997.

K. H. Ho and S. T. Newman, “State of the art electrical discharge machining (EDM),” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., vol. 43, no. 13, pp. 1287–1300, Oct. 2003.

S. K. Hargrove and Duowen Ding, “Determining cutting parameters in wire EDM based on workpiece surface temperature distribution,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 34, no. 3/4, pp. 295–299, Aug. 2007.

A. A. Iqbal and A. A. Khan, “Influence of process parameters on electrical discharge machined job surface integrity,” Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 396–402, 2010.

C.-C. Wang, H.-M. Chow, L.-D. Yang, and C.-T. Lu, “Recast layer removal after electrical discharge machining via Taguchi analysis: A feasibility study,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 209, no. 8, pp. 4134–4140, Apr. 2009.

G. Cusanelli, A. Hessler-Wyser, F. Bobard, R. Demellayer, R. Perez, and R. Flükiger, “Microstructure at submicron scale of the white layer produced by EDM technique,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 149, no. 1–3, pp. 289–295, Jun. 2004.

M. Manjaiah, S. Narendranath, S. Basavarajappa, and V. N. Gaitonde, “Effect of electrode material in wire electro discharge machining characteristics of Ti50Ni50−xCux shape memory alloy,” Precis. Eng., vol. 41, pp. 68–77, Jul. 2015.

B. Ahmad and M. E. Fitzpatrick, “Minimization and Mitigation of Wire EDM Cutting Errors in the Application of the Contour Method of Residual Stress Measurement,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 301–313, Jan. 2016.

M. B. P. P. Pagliaro, “Measuring Multiple Residual-Stress Components using the Contour Method and Multiple Cuts,” Exp. Mech., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 187–194, 2010.

N. Rossini, M. Dassisti, K. Benyounis, and A. Olabi, “Methods of measuring residual stresses in components,” Mater. Des., vol. 35, pp. 572–588, 2012.

Y. Javadi et al., “Residual stress measurement round robin on an electron beam welded joint between austenitic stainless steel 316L (N) and ferritic steel P91,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 2017.

M. E. Fitzpatric, A. T. Fry, P. Holdway, F. A. Kandil, J. Shackleton, and L. Suominen, “Determination of Residual Stresses by X-Ray Diffraction–Issue 2,” Natl. Meas. Good Pract. Guide, no. 52.

“Reference Manual. GF AgieCharmilles 205 971 120/en/11.10.2007.” 2007.

R. Leach, L. Brown, and X. Jiang, “Guide to the measurement of smooth surface topography using coherence scanning interferometry-Issue 1368-6550.” A National Measurement Good Practice Guide, No. 108, 2008.

S. Akaslan and others, “The effect of machining parameters on tool electrode edge wear and machining performance in electric discharge machining (EDM),” KSME Int. J., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 46–59, 2002.

Y. Y. Tsai and C. T. Lu, “Influence of current impulse on machining characteristics in EDM,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1617–1621, 2007.

S. Tomura and M. Kunieda, “Analysis of electromagnetic force in wire-EDM,” Precis. Eng., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 255–262, Jul. 2009.

A. Herrero, S. Azcarate, A. Rees, A. Gehringer, A. Schoth, and J. A. Sanchez, “Influence of force components on thin wire EDM,” in Multi-material micro manufacture. Cardiff University, Cardiff, 2008.

Practical Machinist, “Demagnetize prior to or after WEDM cutting. Available: Last accessed 03rd Aug 2015.” 2008.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.